Brief History of the World Wiki
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Ancient History[]

  • c. 3300 BC: Rise of Sumerian civilisation in Mesopotamia, one of the first and most important civilizations in history, also the first one in develop writing. The Sumerians, Akkadians and Babylonians dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered by the Persian Empire.
  • c. 3200 BC: Megalithic Art of Newgrange built in Ireland
  • c. 3200 BC: Rise of Norte Chico civilization in Peru; lasted until 1800 BC
  • c. 3000 BC:
    • Rise of the 1st dynasty in Egypt. Egypt will undergo three periods of fragmentation over the next 2500 years. It became dominated by foreigners since 669 BC (Assyrians, Persians and then Greeks), but the Kingdom as a whole ended in 30 BC when it was annexed by the Roman Empire.
    • Cuneiform writing system developed in Sumeria
    • Rise of Indus Valley Civilisation in India; lasted until 1900 BC
    • Rise of Minoan Civilization in Crete; lasted until 1100 BC
  • 2698 BC or 2638 BC: Starting date of the Chinese Calendar. The stories of this time are purely mythical, but it is very possible that they were based on the real story of the unification of the first Chinese tribes.
  • 2589 – 2566 BC: Egypt — Reign of the Khufu. The construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza begins.
  • 2334 BC : Akkadian Empire established, the first great empire of Mesopotamia. Lasted until 2154 BC
  • c. 2200 BC: Stonehenge built in England
  • 1895 BC: Babylon established; fell to the Persians in 539 BC
  • c. 1800 BC: Believed birth year of Abraham, the founding father of Judaism and other Abrahamic religions
  • c. 1600 BC: Rise of Shang Dynasty, the first Chinese dynasty supported by archaeological evidence. Lasted until 1046 BC
  • c. 1500 BC: Composition of the Rigveda Holy Book of Hinduism
  • c. 1400 BC: Rise of Mycenaean civilisation in Greece; lasted until 1100 BC
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  • c. 1200 BC:
    • Late Bronze Age Collapse in Europe and south-western Asia. Decline of various civilisations.
    • Rise of Olmec civilisation in Mexico; lasted until 400 BC
    • Phoenician writing system emerged, the oldest verified alphabet
    • Chinese writing system emerge
  • c. 1050 BC: Rise of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah; lasted until 586 BC
  • 1046 BC: Zhou Dynasty overthrew the Shang in China; lasted until 256 BC. However, it lost control of all of China in 771 BC during the collapse of their Kingdom.
  • c. 1000 BC: Use of Iron has spread throughout the Near East

Classical History[]

Ancient Greece Parthenon.JPG
  • 814 BC: Carthage founded; fell to the Romans in 146 BC
  • 808 BC: Greece Macedonian Kingdom established; fell to the Romans in 148 BC
  • 776 BC: Greece First Olympic Games. Coroebus wins the only event –a 192-meter foot race called the stade (the origin of the modern “stadium”)–to become the first Olympic champion
  • 771 BC: China — Spring and Autumn period begins. Lasted until 476 BC
  • 753 BC: Founding of Rome according to tradition
  • 721 BC: Deioces (or Dia-oku) crowned as shas, the title of Iranian/Persian rulers
  • 586 BC: Destruction of the First Temple in Jerusalem (Solomon's Temple) by the Babylonians
  • 563 BC: India — Birth of Siddhartha Gautama or Buddha, the founder of Buddhism
  • 551 BC: China — Birth of Confucius, the founder of Confucianism
  • 550 BC: Achaemenid Iranian/Persian Empire established by Cyrus the Great. Imperial Iran as a whole continued to exist until AD 1979, when the monarchy was abolished by the new Islamic Republic. The territory was always known as Iran, but the "Persia" was popularized in the West.
  • 549 BC: India — Birth of Mahavira, co-founder of Jainism
  • 539 – 525 BC: The Persian Empire reaches its peak after conquering the Babylonian Empire (thus liberating the Jews) and then Egypt.
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  • 509 BC: Roman Republic founded after the expulsion of the last king of Rome.
  • 508 BC: Democracy instituted at Athens
  • 480 BC: Persian invasion of Greece by Xerxes I
  • 475 BC: China Warring States period began in as the Zhou king became a mere figurehead. Lasted until China imperial unification in 221 BC
  • 432 BC: Greece — Construction of the Parthenon in Athens completed
  • 428 or 427 BC: Greece — Birth of Plato, key founder of Western Philosophy
  • 431 BC: Beginning of the Peloponnesian War between the Greek city-states, lasted until 404 BC
  • 390 BC: Gauls (from modern France) invade and sack Rome. This marks the beginning of roman militarization. By this time, Rome has already formed its famous Calendar, the basis for all of Western civilization.
  • 371 BC: The Battle of Leuctra ends Spartan hegemony over Greece
  • 336 – 323 BC: Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquers the entire Persian Empire, creating the biggest empire at the time. His death marks the end of Greek Democracy and the beginning of the Hellenistic Period, when most of the Western World was influenced by Greece.

World around the year 200 BC; the colour pink represents hellenistic states

  • 323 BC: Maurya Indian Empire established by Chandragupta, who united almost all of India.
  • 264 BC: Roman conquest of Italy ends. Mediterranean expansion begins with the First Punic War against Carthage.
  • 221 BC: The Empire of China is established by Qin Shihuang (the name China may be a variation of “Qin”) following a series of unification wars. He orders the creation of the (Eight Thousand) Terracotta Soldier for his tomb and starts the construction of the Great Wall. His rise in 221 BC marks the beginning of Imperial China, a great and powerufl empire that, although divided many times, would continue to exist all the way up until 1912 AD.
  • 214 – 148 BC: Macedonian Wars. The Roman Republic gains control of the Mediterranean.
  • 146 BC: Greece is conquered by Rome
  • 88 – 63 BC: Roman annexation of Anatolia. Decline of the Roman Republic begins.
  • 54 BC: First Roman-Persian War. These wars would last until 628 AD
  • 49 – 30 BC: Great Roman Civil War and Fall of the Republic. Egypt, the last remnant of Alexander’ Empire, falls into Roman control.
  • 27 BC: Roman Empire established by Octavius Augustus.

First Millenium[]

  • c. AD 1 : Birth of Jesus Christ, founder of Christianity.
  • c. 30 : Saint Peter becomes the first Pope.
  • 43 : Southern Britain annexed by Rome.
  • c.150: Invention of woodblock imprint in China
  • 220 : Fragmentation of China (Han Dynasty).
  • c. 250 : Japan — Rise of the Yamato Empire
  • 301 : Republic of San Marino established within the Roman Italy as an independent micro-state. It is the oldest surviving Republic in the world, as it continues until our days.
  • 330 : Rome — After a civil War, Constantine "the Great" decides to divide the Empire in two halfs. The city of Byzantium is transformed into Constantinople (modern Istanbul), also known as Nova Roma, and becomes the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which would last another 1000 years (although it would continue to be more Greek than Roman).
  • 380 : Christianity becomes the official religion of the Roman Empire (and thus all of Europe)

World in the year 401

  • 476 : Fall of Rome. Corruption and germanic invasions bring the end of the Western Roman Empire. Since then, the city of Rome remains under control of the Popes. The following years mark a decline in Western civilization known as the Dark Ages. Meanwhile, in the East, the rest of the Roman Empire continues to prosper (since it was no longer in Rome, it’s more popularly known as the “Byzantine” Empire)
  • c. 509 : France — Clovis I unites all Frankish tribes, creating the first French state. The city of Paris becomes the capital of the new kingdom.
  • 525 : The “Anno Domini” is established. The birth of Jesus Christ becomes the starting point of the Roman Calendar.
  • 539 : Japan Emperor Kinmei conquers all of Western Japan. He becomes the first Japanese Emperor supported by historiography. His bloodline, the Yamato House, continues until our days, making it the longest surviving dynasty in all history (at least 1500 years).
  • 581 : China is unified by the Sui Dynasty.
  • 602 : Last Roman-Persian War begins. Lasted until 626, with no clear winner, but both empires ended up devasted.
  • 622 : Arabia Islam is founded by Mohammed. Ten years later, after Mohammed's death, the First Islamic Caliphate is formed. This system continued to exist until 1924, when it was abolished by the newly formed Turkish Republic.
  • 636 – 656: Great Islamic Expansion. Jerusalem (636), Persia (654) and Roman Egypt (656) are conquered and converted to Islam.
  • 697: The Republic of Venice becomes independent from the Eastern Roman Empire. It lasted exactly 1100 years until the Napoleonic Invasion in 1797.
  • 711 – 726: Islamic Conquest of modern Spain. However, a small Christian Kingdom manages to resist the invasion in northern Spain. Over several centuries, Christians would fight the Muslims for control of the peninsula.
  • 762: The city of Baghdad, the “Center of Learning”, founded by the Caliphate. It would become the center of great scientific achievements during the Islamic Golden Age.
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  • 774 : Charlemagne, King of the Franks, saves the Pope of a Lombard attack by conquering almost all of Italy. Charlemagne then creates the Papal States, which would continue to exist until 1870.
  • 800 AD: Charlemagne is crown "Roman Emperor" by the Pope. At that time, the Eastern Roman Empire was de-facto ruled by a women, something the papacy couldn’t tolerate. In addition, disputes between the East and West Christianity cause the deterioration of relationships with the Roman Church. Charlemagne manages to reconquer most of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 808: China — Gunpowder is discovered
  • 843: Charlmagne's Empire is vidided'.' Western and Eastern Francia would become future France and Germany respectively.
  • 859 : University of Qarawiyyin founded by the Islamic Caliphate in Morocco. It is the oldest university in the entire world.
  • 879 : Russia The Kievan Rus is established. It consist of a loose confederation of Slavic tribes ruled by the Rurik Dynasty, which would continue to exist until 1612, when the last one died without an heir, thus entering a new Dynasty (the Romanovs).
  • 927 : Britain Kingdom of England established by Æthelstan
  • 962 : Germany Holy Roman Empire established. After reconquering the divided territories of West and Middle Francia, Oton I "the Great" assumes control of Italy and is crowned Emperor of the Romans. This Empire will be later referred as the "First Reich" by future germans, and will continue to exist for almost 1000 years until its destruction in 1806 at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Second Millenium[]

World in the year 1091

  • 1037: The Seljuq Empire is established by nomadic Turks converted into Islam. Soon they conquer the weakened Caliphate and in 1048 they began attacking the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • 1054: Great Schism between Western (Catholic) and Eastern (Orthodox) Christianity. This divide continues in present day, present time.
  • 1066: William the Conqueror conquers all of England. However, William was from Normandy, vassal of France. This event marks the beginning of the Anglo-French rivalry (and wars) that will endure until the sign of the Entente Cordiale in 1904.
  • 1071: Turkish invasion of Anatolia. After the Battle of Manzikert, the Roman Empire loses all of Anatolia to the Turks after a massive military disaster. This marks the beginning of the turkification of Anatolia and its conversion to Islam. The Roman Empire begins negotiations with the Pope to reconquer its lost territories, seting the stage for the Crusades.
  • c. 1096: The Oxford University begins functioning
  • 1096: The Crusades begin. The Roman Empire and the Papacy start a massive campaign to fight the Muslims in the East and retake the Holy Land of Jerusalem (although this was mostly an excuse to encourage new soldiers to aid the Roman Empire). These religious wars lasted until 1272, but they never managed to accomplish anything (except, ironically, the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire).
  • 1192: Japan — The Shogunate is established. The Emperor continues to exist, but its power are taken away by the Shoguns.
  • 1204: During the Fourth Crusade, Venice betrays the Eastern Roman Empire and aids an army of crusaders to siege and sack Constantinople. The Empire is divided among the crusaders and Venice becomes a trade empire.
  • 1206: Genghis Khan unites the north-asiatic nomadic mongol tribes, becoming the first ruler of the Mongol Empire. He commands the invasion and conquest of China, which at the time was divided in 3 states, the first falling in 1227 and the last one in 1272.
  • 1237 – 1240: Mongol Conquest of the Kievan Rus and European raids. The following invasion of Europe brings destruction to Poland and Hungary.
  • 1241: Ogedei Khan dies, stopping Mongol advance into Central Europe.
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  • 1258: Siege of Bagdad. The Mongol Empire siege and destroys the city, marking the end of the Islamic Golden Age. One year later, the death of the Great Khan causes a civil war that marks begins the decline of the Empire.
  • 1261: The Eastern Roman Empire is reunified by the Palaiologos Dynasty. However, it never manages to recovers from the Fourth Crusade. By this time, the Mongols have started to fade out outside Asia.
  • 1271: China — The Yuan Dynasty is established by Kublai Khan
  • 1282: Europe — Rise of the Habsburg in Austria
  • 1299: Ottoman Empire established by Osman I (origin of the name) in a new Mongol-free Anatolia.
  • 1337: The Hundred Years War between England and France begins.
  • 1347 — 1353: The Black Death spreads all across Eurasia, killing millions of people. Its effects were minimal in Asia, while in Europe it killed half of its entire population and brought the beginning of the end for the Feudal system.
  • 1368: China Ming Dynasty established after a century of mongol domination. Mongol remnants continue to exist in the form of various Khanates in West Asia.
  • 1403: The Eastern Roman Empire is reduced to merely three smalls states (and then just two in 1430) as the Ottoman Empire expands rapidly.
  • 1452 : Italy Birth of Leonardo Da Vinci. The Renaissance begins as philosophers and artists rediscover the knowledges of the Ancient Greco-Roman World.
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  • 1453 AD: End of the European Middle Ages
    • Fall of Constantinople
      • Definitive end of the Roman Empire
      • Consolidation of the Ottoman Empire
      • End of the European trade system with Asia.
    • End of the Hundred Years War
      • France becomes the european superpower.
    • Modernization of warfare
    • Decline of the Feudal System
  • Alongside this events, the printing press is developed around this time.

Modern Age[]

  • 1480: Russia End of the Mongol rule. Grand Duchy of Muscow established as a sovereign state.
  • 1492: Spain is unified after conquering the last Muslim remnant. Just a few months later, Cristobal Columbus, supported by Spain, arrives at America. This massive event has to wait many decades before it actually changes the world. Some historians consider this the ending point of the Middle Ages.

  • 1511: The Spanish Conquest of America begin
  • 1515: Europe — The Protestant Reformation begins against the corruption of the Papacy. This set the stage for the European Religious Wars
  • 1525: Germany The Duchy of Prussia is established within the Holy Roman Empire. It will eventually become the crearor of the modern German state.
  • 1543: Germany Nicolaus Copernicus creates the heliocentric theory, proposing that the Earth an the other planets actually revolve around the Sun.
  • 1547: The Tsardom of Russia is established. The Conquest of the Siberian Desert begins 33 years later.
  • 1582: The Gregorian Calendar (our current one) is created after adjusting the Julian Calendar.
  • 1605 : Spain — "Don Quixote" is published. A founding work of Western literature, it is often labeled "the first modern novel" and many authors consider it to be the best literary work ever written.
  • 1607 : English colonization of America begins
  • 1613 : Russia Rise of the Romanov Dynasty
  • 1633 : Japan – The Shogunate begins its total isolation from the outside world.
  • 1636 : China – The Qing Dynasty, last imperial dynasty, is established by the Manchurians.
  • 1643 : Birth of Isaac Newton. The Enlightenment, a period of scientific and philosophic innovations in Europe, starts after his radical discoveries.
  • 1688 : British Glorious Revolution; England becomes the first constitutional monarchy, adopting a liberal system that prevails until our days.
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  • 1701 : Germany — The Kingdom of Prussia is established, significantly expanding its territory and influence.
  • 1707 : Union of England and Scotland
  • 1721 : Russian Empire established by Peter the Great.
  • 1752 : Benjamin Franklin begins experimentation with electricity ​​​​​​(USA)
  • 1763 – 1774 : Steam Power developed in Britain. James Watt and Thomas Newcomen create and patent the first Steam Machines. Around this time, the Great Divergence occurs, as Western Countries manage to surpass every other country in the world using technological wonders and thinking new philosophical ideas. China starts its decadence.
  • 1776 – 1783 : The United States of America becomes the first country in gain independence for an European power.
  • 1789 : The French Revolution begins as the French revolt against the absolute monarchy.

Contemporary Age[]

Napoleonic Age (1792 — 1821)[]

  • 1792 – 1799 : France, now a Republic, falls into chaos and terror. Louis XVI is executed and soon the country is surrounded by enemies. ​​​​​​At the end, Napoleon Bonaparte takes full control of the Republic and start a counter-offensive against the invaders.
  • 1796 : Britain — First vaccine tested by Edward Jenner
  • 1801 : The United Kingdom of Britain, Ireland and Scotland is formally formed.
  • 1802 : UK — Sir Humphry Davy discovers incandescence in a platinum wire. He also is the discoverer of the first electric lamp type: the carbon arc lamp.
  • 1803 : Napoleon sells the territory of Louisiana to the USA, significantly expanding its borders. The Manifest Destiny becomes popular and American ambitions for expansion begins.
  • 1803 — 1815 : Napoleonic Wars; Napoleon transforms the Republic into a French Empire and achieves victory after victory until it manages to conquer almost all of Europe.
    • 1804 : Napoleon declares the Austrian Empire.
    • 1806 : Fall of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The territory is reorganized into a new Confederation.
    • 1808 : Fall of the Kingdom of Spain. A military resistance is quickly formed and the Liberation War begins. The crisis within Spain affects his american colonies, sparking the Latin American Independence Wars three years later.
    • 1812 : Napoleon defeat in his Russian Campaign marks the beginning of his downfall.
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  • 1815 : Napoleon is defeated
    • The monarchy is restored
    • Europe borders are completely redraw to create a "Balance of Powers"
    • United Kingdom rises as the global superpower
    • Napoleon's Empire disappear, but many of the borders he created don't.

Industrialization, Revolutions, Innovations and Unifications Period (1821—1871)[]

  • 1821 – 1824 : Spain loses all of his American Colonies, which become independent republics
  • 1821 – 1829 : Greek War of Independence. The Ottoman Empire (known then as the "sick man of Europe") continues to deteriorate as many of its provinces claim independence.
  • 1824 : "The Great Game" begins as Russia begins its expansion into Asia with the occupation of modern Kazakhstan. During the next decades, United Kingdom and Russia fight each other for control of Central Asia.
  • 1826 : Invention of Photography by Joseph Nicéphore (France)
  • 1829 : Invention of the Telegraph by Joseph Henry (USA)
  • 1830 : Second French Revolution; France becomes a constitutional monarchy.
  • 1831 : The Egyptian Independence Wars begin
  • 1844 : First Telegraph Message (USA). Samuel F.B. Morse send the following message from Washington to Baltimore: "What hath God wrought?" (Bible, Numbers 23:23)
  • 1846 – 1848 : American-Mexican War; The USA conquers all of the West and reaches the Pacific Ocean.
  • 1848 : Germany The Communist Manifesto is published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
  • 1848 – 1852 : The Second French Republic is established with Louis Bonaparte, cousin of Napoleon, as president. However, he establishes a Second French Empire after losing re-elections.
  • 1853 : Japan — The USA forces Japan to open itself. The Shogunate deteriorates.
  • 1858 : British conquers all of the Indian subcontinent.
  • 1864 – 1870 : Paraguayan War; the most destructive war in South American history.
  • 1868 : The Empire of Japan is established; the Emperor regains absolute power in the Meiji Restoration.
  • 1870 – 1871 : Franco-Prussian War
    • Fall of the French Empire and declaration of the Third French Republic
    • Unification of Germany under Prussian rule. This begins the "Second Reich".
    • Unification of Italy, end of the Papal States
    • The Habsburgs are isolated into Austria and Hungary (which later unite)
    • Road to WW1 begins.

Road to World War (1871—1914)[]

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  • 1872 : British annexation of Southern Arabia. The new Era of Colonialism begins.
  • 1879 : UK — First incandescent light bulb patented by Thomas Edison
  • 1882 : Central Powers formed with the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary & Italy). Egypt is conquered by the British. By this point, the european powers have gained powerful interests in Africa. In Germany, Nikola Tesla builds the first Alternating Current motor.
  • 1884 : Scramble of Africa. Ethiopia is the only country to maintain independence. Machine Gun invented by Hiram Maxim (USA).
  • 1886 : The first modern car is patented by german Carl Benz
  • 1891 : First inter-urban transmission with Alternating Current (Germany). This are the basis for our modern electronic urban systems.
  • 1894 : Franco-Russian Alliance in response of Germany's plans to isolate France. In Asia, the Japanese Empire starts its expansion with the annexation of Korea and invasion of China.
  • 1895 : Cinema is invented by the Lumière Brothers in France.
  • 1896 : Greek Olympic Games; 1476 years after its prohibition in AD 393
  • 1898 : Japan defeats China, which hasn't able to adapt to the modern world. In the Americas, Spain loses cuba to the USA (Spain knows this as the "Disaster of 98"). The USA starts becoming a global power.
  • 1902 : Anglo-Japanese Alliance
  • 1904 – 1905 : Russo-Japanese War. For the first time, a foreign power manages to defeat a European State. The sparks of the Russian Revolution begin. The Tsar creates the Duma Council to calm the masses. In Europe, Russia stops being a threat to Britain. The Great Game ends.
  • 1905 : Albert Einstein creates the basis for atomic energy (E=mc²)
  • 1907 : Anglo-Russian Alliance. The Triple Entente between France, Russia and the UK is formed.
  • 1912 : Collapse of Imperial China; establishment of the Chinese Republic. However, it quickly falls into anarchy. The Warlord Period begins four years later.
  • 1912 – 1913 : Balkan Wars. The Ottoman Empire lost all its European territories to the west of the River Maritsa as a result of the two Balkan Wars, which thus delineated present-day Turkey's western border. The war set the stage for the Balkan crisis of 1914 which directly lead to the first World War. In other places of the world, Henry Ford starts the mass production of cars.
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Global Wars (1914 — 1945)[]

  • 1914 — 1918 : FIRST WORLD WAR. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by nationalists terrorists of Serbia causes Austro-Hungary to declare war. The complex alliance system ends up involving all the European powers and, later on, foreign powers such as the USA and Japan. It was the greatest and most destructive war in human history at the time.
    • 1915 : Italy betrays the Central Powers and switches sides. First use of tanks in warfare.
    • 1916 : Sykes Picot Agreement. France and Britain agree to divide the Ottoman Empire to themselves.
    • 1917 : Russian Revolution. The German intelligence aids the exiled revolutionary Lenin to return to his homeland Russia just in time for the Revolution against the Tsar. The Romanovs are overthrown, but a civil war begins. Russia loses many territories in the west.
    • 1918 : The Arab Rebels are convinced by the UK to fight the Ottoman Empire. They are promised an united Arab, something that obviously didn't’ happened. This set in motion the arabic conflict that continues until modern days.
  • 1919 : Treaty of Versailles.
    • Central Powers divided, occupied and transformed into Republics. They must pay war reparations.
    • Japan annexes all German colonies in the Pacific
    • German Africa is shared among the Entente
    • The USA rises as a new global superpower
  • 1920 – 1939 : Inter Wars Period ​​​​​; Rise of fascism
    • 1920 : The League of Nations (predecessor to the Unated Nations) is created by american president Woodrow Wilson.
    • 1922 :
      • Egypt achieves independence. One year later, the Turkish Republic is established following its War of Independence. Global Decolonization slowly begins.
      • Benito Mussolini rises in Italy, which becomes a fascist regime
      • The Soviet Union (USSR) is established following the end of the Russian Civil War. It becomes the first communist state in the world.
    • 1927 : The UK becomes the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. World population reaches 2 billion. The first TV is tested (USA).
    • 1929 : The Great Depression begins, affecting the economy of all the world. Because of turbulent times, Nazism rise in Germany
    • 1933 : Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of the German Republic. He assumes emergency powers and then announces the beginning of the Third Reich. The Nazi German Empire slowly expands over the next years, usually with non-violent means.
    • 1937 : Japan invades China. The civil war briefly stops ton fight the Japanese threat. At the same time, in Spain, the newly formed Republic falls into civil war between the army and liberals.
  • 1939 – 1945 : SECOND WORLD WAR. The German invasion of Poland is the trigger for yet another global conflict. German allies with Italy and Japan, but they are all defeated.
    • 1945 :
      • First Atomic bombs tested in warfare. The Pacific Front ends with the USA destroying Nagasaki and Hiroshima, forcing the Japanese Empire to surrender.
      • Potsdam Conference. Europe is divided in Western (USA) and Eastern (USSR) blocs.
      • Italy and many other countries become a Republic

Cold War Era (1947 — 1990)[]

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  • 1947 : The Truman Doctrine is created by the USA to “fight communism”. The Cold War begins. Two years later, the NATO Treaty is signed in Washington. India achieves independence from the UK.
  • 1948 : Israel is recognised as an independent country. However, tensions with his neighbors created numerous conflicts that continue to our days.
  • 1949 : People’s Republic of China is established following the end of the Civil War.
  • 1950 – 1953 : Korean War. The armistice continues until our days.
  • 1955 : Space Race begins. The Warsaw Pact is created to oppose NATO
  • 1956 :
    • Suez Crisis. UK and France, with the help of Israel, invade Egypt for control over the Suez Canal. Political pressure from the USA and USSR led to a withdrawal. The episode humiliated the United Kingdom and France, which were now clearly subordinates to the new superpowers.
    • Ideal-X Ship, the first commercially successful container ship sale across the Atlantic (USA). Expansion of global trade.
  • 1962 : Cuba Missile Crisis. The world is on the verge of nuclear war for a few days before the USA and USSR decide to withdraw their nuclear armament.
  • 1968 – 1989 : Condor Plan. The USA establishes numerous dictatorships all across South America to prevent any communist presence.
  • 1969 : Landing of the Moon. The USA wins the Space Race
  • 1974 : World population reaches 4 billion
  • 1979 – 1989: Soviet–Afghan War and Operation Cyclone. The USA helps various insurgents groups in Afghanistan to fight off the Soviets. This results in the creation of Al-Qaeda.
  • 1986 : Chernobyl Disaster.
  • 1987 : USA and the USSR agree to eliminate all land-based intermediate-range missiles. World population reaches 5 billion.
  • 1989 : Fall of the Berlin Wall; Germany is reunified one year later. Collapse of the Soviet Union begins.

Recent History (1990 — 2000)[]

  • 1990 : Birth of the Internet. World Wide Web created by Tim Berners-Lee (Britain).
  • 1991 : Disintegration of the Soviet Union.
    • Gorbachev resigns
    • Warsaw Pact dissolved
    • Russian Federation established.
    • Yugoslav Wars begiin; lasted until 2001
    • Somali Civil War begins; it continues until our days.
  • 1993 : European Union founded
  • 1995 : World Trade Organization founded
  • 1996 : The Congo Wars begin. They are also also called as the African World War, as they involved almost all african countries. Lasted until 2003.
  • 1999 :
    • Euro Coin created.
    • World population riches 6 billion
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